Holding in, holding on: daytime and nighttime restraint  

restraint - TheraPee blog - Bedwetting solution
There is a fundamental difference between the act of restraint during the day in a state of wakefulness and the act of restraint at night in a state of sleep. Since the urinary system is the same in both states, the difference between them stems from the restraint mechanism in the brain.

During the day, while awake, we use the cognitive mechanism of the brain. At night, in a state of sleep, there is no activity of the cognitive system, and the action of restraint is controlled by the subconscious mechanism of the brain.

The amount of urine produced by the kidneys is directly related to the amount of fluid in our body. The kidney is the organ that balances the water in the body. From there, the urine passes to the bladder through two tubes (a tube from each kidney). These tubes are called Ureters.

The urine final stop before leaving the body is the bladder. The bladder is shaped by nerve cells from the third and fourth vertebrae in the spine. The size of a mature bladder is about 13X8X13 cm and its capacity while full can reach to about 600 cc – a very large stretching capacity.

The bladder is enveloped by an involuntary smooth muscle. The fibers of this muscle form the inner sphincter of the bladder. The inner sphincter is therefore controlled by an involuntary muscle, while the outer sphincter is in the urethra and is controlled by a voluntary muscle, which is the important sphincter for voluntary restraint.

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